### Archive

Archive for the ‘Graphics’ Category

## XNA Picking Tutorial Part II

#### Introduction:

Hello & welcome to the second picking tutorial!
1- Ray picking.
2- RTS style selection box (two approaches).
3- Projection and why you need it.

In part I, I talked about picking single objects, In many cases such as RTS games that’s not enough…

You’ll need to select multiple units together using some sort of a rectangle or selection box that you make by clicking and dragging with your mouse.

Two approaches I know:
1- Unprojecting your selection box and check for collisions in 3D world space.
2- Projecting your 3D objects and perform simple 2D rectangle collision detection.

#### First approach, Unprojecting a rectangle ( A little tricky ) :

If you unproject a point the result should be a ray ( Part I discussed this issue in some detail) , If you unproject a rectangle the result depends on your projection matrix, We’ll assume it’s a perspective projection matrix, so the result of unprojecting a rectangle is a frustum (BoundingFrustum in XNA), in most cases this BoundingFrustum is not a scaled version of the view frustum, it’s some sort of irregular frustum, images are better than words:

Click on image to see full size

Now how do we get this frustum? Read more…

## XNA Picking Tutorial Part I

#### Introduction:

In the following three or four articles I’m gonna discuss XNA picking related issues including:
1- Ray picking.
2- RTS style selection box (two approaches).
3- Projection and why you need it.

I’m not an XNA professional so I might make some mistakes, please if you think any thing is wrong tell me and I’ll be happy to respond 😀

#### What is picking?

Well.. in short, picking is something you’ll need if you want to know what 3D object the mouse cursor is over! in other words picking lets you “pick” a 3D object with your mouse, if you have ever played a 3D RTS (real time startegy) game like C&C Generals, selecting a unit with you mouse is called picking!

In a 2D game knowing what’s the mouse is over – in most cases – is simple, just check if the mouse is inside a rectangle or a circle for example, in a 3D world it’s a little trickier!.

In a previous post I visualized how picking 3D objects works in XNA. (no need to check the old post, every thing you want is here…)
Today I’m gonna explain how the operation works, the official picking sample is great, and much of my explanation is taken from there…
Picking will be explained step by step in addition to some other picking issues…

#### 1-Ray Picking:

A ray goes from a specified point towards a specified direction ( it doesn’t have an ending point).
XNA provides a Ray struct with some good intersection detection methods, you can check ray intersection against bounding volumes (BoundingBox, BoundingSphere, BoundingFrustum) and Planes.
The main idea of picking is to create a ray that goes from a point in the near plane of the camera frustum towards another point in the far plane of the camera frustum, these two points are specified using the mouse screen coordinates (mouse x and y), once we have that ray we can check for intersections with 3D objects using there bounding spheres for example..

Click on image to see full size

Whenever you draw a 3D object to your 2D screen it has to be projected using the matrices  world, view and projection, multiplying the 3D position of a vertex with these three matrices produces the 2D position of the vertex in the viewport. this operation is called projection, transforming from world coordinates to screen coordinates.

When picking we want to do the opposite : transform from screen coordinates (mouse position on the screen) to world coordinates, This operation Read more…

## Space Defender game updated to XNA 4.0

It’s been a while since my last post.. Anyway, just wanted to note that my XNA game Space Defender has been updated to XNA4.0 🙂

It didn’t take much work to update, the code hasn’t changed much, Although I have some improvements in my mind but I don’t actually enjoy modifying old projects 😦

You can find the main game post here with the new links added…

Right now I’m working on some picking articles 😀

See ya 😀

## XNA Ray Picking Sample

Edit : The article is archived!, please refer to the my XNA Picking Tutorial

Hello! 🙂

This is a simple XNA 3.1 app that I wrote to demonstrate how picking 3D objects works :)…

Make sure you first check the official picking sample, you can find it here (XNA GS4).

Okay back to my app…
What makes my sample different is that you can actually see the camera frustum & the mouse ray, here’s a screen shot:

as you can see there are three viewports here:
1- Right : The main game scene, camera used : camera1…
2- Left : in this viewport the whole scene is rendered again and can be seen using a second camera (camera2), camera1 is visualized here, camera1 frustum, near/far planes and mouse ray are all rendered here so that you can see how picking works ;)…
3- Bottom : Instructions & info.

Both cameras are free look cameras similar to Counter-Strike free look cameras…

Here are the files:
RayPickingSample Executable
RayPickingSample Source

Revisions:
rev.1 : Fixed cam frustum bug where the tip of the frustum were stuck on some computers, fixed a typo.

#### Interested in programming details?

In this project you can find a free look camera class called Camera , there’s also a second camera class which is VisualCamera.

## Working On Terrain

Right now I’m working on terrain manipulation & rendering…
I’ve done some basic terrain rendering in the past using the Brute Force approach, What I’m trying now is the LOD (Level Of Detail ) algorithm!
I’m having some difficulties now with the normals 😦
The quad tree implementation is almost finished, right now I’m rendering the terrain using the highest level of detail ( always going to the leaves of the tree & render them ), of course that will be fixed later after I’m done with some issues like normals & some optimization…After all, what benefit is LOD without increasing the performance? 😀

Here’s a screen shot, the terrain is rendered in wireframe! no one will stand the way it looks in the solid FillMode ( the normals issue 😦 )

I painted the height map using only Windows7 Paint﻿

I hope that I can complete this project, then I might add some trees & grass ( It’s time I learned BillBoarding ) & of course fill the river with animating water!

If you’re interested in LOD you can check these links:
Gamasutra.com : Realtime_Dynamic_Level_of_Detail
Gamasutra.com : Continuous_LOD_Terrain_Meshing
Smart Terrain Rendering with XNA

Note: gamasutra articles are more than one page! you can view all pages within one browser tab, just click the printable version button

Categories: Graphics, XNA

## 3D Water Bodies

This is a simple XNA project that simulates an ocean…
The idea first came to me when I was practicing on creating terrain using heightmaps! I was playing with the vertices of the terrain, giving them some motion on the Y Axis then I said to my self: “Wow! This looks like the sea wavy water! :D”

The principle is simple! examine this very simple example:

I have 9 vertices forming 4 quads
I also have an array of 9 integers to determine the direction of each vertex : up/down
when first initializing the WaterBody, a random value between -n,n is assigned to the Y component of each vertex. so each vertex should start with a random Y component… The direction of each vertex is also generated randomly!

Now all I have to do – every frame – is to move each vertex in its direction, if Position.Y<-n or Position.Y>n then fix Position.Y and change the direction of the vertex ( if up make it down, if down make it up! pretty simple huh? 🙂 )

If you apply the above to a larger number of vertices ( I used 70×70 in my project ) you’ll have a nice wavy water!
Adding some lighting and texture will make things better ;).
Adding sound effects will make things even better! 😉 😉

Here’s the final result!

You can control several things in the application like enabling/disabling lighting and texture, changing camera position…
You can change the max wave height,wind speed and the application will automatically randomize the  waves!

WaterBodies Executable ( 144 KB ) – XNA Redistributable 3.1 Required ONLY if you don’t have XNA Game Studio 3.1 installed
WaterBodies Source Code ( 183 KB ) – XNA Game Studio 3.1 Required

Revisions:

rev. 1 : Position,Rotation,Scale properties are now available! the WaterBody class is now more flexible than before!

rev. 2 : Updated camera class, now it’s a free look camera. Code now is more tidy..

## Hanoi Towers

Hanoi Towers is a game where the objective is to move all discs from tower A To tower C BUT there are two simple rules :

1. you can’t place a disc over a smaller one
2. you can only move one disc at a time!

The problem can be solved using a recursive algorithm..
Actually my college partner Hashem Al-Rifai and I programmed this simulation for our college algorithms project
We used C++,OpenGL and SFML ( what a mixture 🙂 )
The reason we used SFML is because it makes working with windows,input and sound much easier, it saves you the trouble you might run into when using only OpenGL :D…